Nanosensors and the Internet of Nanothings
The Internet of Things (IoT), built from inexpensive microsensors and microprocessors paired with tiny power supplies and wireless antennas, is rapidly expanding the online. New IoT devices are announced almost daily, and analysts expected to up to 30 billion of them to be online by 2020.
The Blockchain (A revolutionary decentralized trust system)
By using the blockchain, individuals can exchange money or purchase insurance securely without a bank account. Blockchain technology lets strangers record simple, enforceable contracts without a lawyer. It makes it possible to sell real estate, event tickets, stocks, and almost any other kind of property or right without a broker.
2-D Materials “Wonder materials” are becoming increasingly affordable
2-D materials have interesting properties and substances that can be combined like Lego bricks to build still more new materials. For e.g- graphyne from carbon. Graphene is stronger than steel, harder than diamond, lighter than almost anything, transparent, flexible and an ultrafast electrical conductor.
Organs-on-chips (Using chips instead of organs for medical testing purposes)
Many important biological studies and practical drug tests can be done only by studying an organ it operates. A new technology could fill this need by growing functional pieces of human organs in miniature, on microchips.
Perovskite Solar Cells (Making progress towards ubiquitous solar power generation)
This new photovoltaic material offers three improvements over the classic silicon solar cell: it is easier to make, can be used virtually anywhere and, to date, keeps on generating power more efficiently.
Open AI Ecosystem (From artificial to contextual intelligence)
The elite have personal assistants who handle things like – scheduling appointments, making travel plans, searching for the information. But soon we can also soon afford this luxury. Open AI Ecosystem will soon allow smart digital assistants help – right from artificial intelligence (e.g – Apple’s Siri, Microsoft’s Cortana, Google’s OK Google, and Amazon’s Echo) to contextual intelligence.
Optogenetics (Using light to control genetically modified neurons)
The use of light and colour to record the activity of neurons in the brain has been around for some time, but recent developments mean light can now be delivered deeper into brain tissue, something that could lead to better treatment for people with brain disorders.
Systems Metabolic Engineering (Chemicals from renewable sources’ microorganisms)
With recent advances in synthetic biology, systems biology and evolutionary engineering, metabolic engineers are now able to create biological systems that manufacture chemicals that are hard to produce by conventional means.
Autonomous Vehicles (Self-driving cars coming sooner than expected)
Google and other companies have been testing self-driving cars. These autos process vast amounts of sensory data from onboard radars, cameras, ultrasonic range-finders, GPS, and stored maps to navigate routes although autonomous vehicles will involve drawbacks as well.
Next Generation Batteries
Although solar and wind power capacity have been growing rapidly, these renewable sources of energy still satisfy less than five percent of global electricity demand. Better batteries could solve this problem, enabling emissions-free renewables to grow even faster and making it easier to bring reliable electricity.